Overview of and topical guide to computer science
Computer science (also called computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. One well known subject classification system for computer science is the ACM Computing Classification System devised by the Association for Computing Machinery.
What is computer science?
Computer science can be described as all of the following:
Algorithms and data structures
- Algorithms – Sequential and parallel computational procedures for solving a wide range of problems.
- Data structures – The organization and manipulation of data.
Outline of artificial intelligence
Communication and security
- Computer architecture – The design, organization, optimization and verification of a computer system, mostly about CPUs and Memory subsystem (and the bus connecting them).
- Operating systems – Systems for managing computer programs and providing the basis of a usable system.
- Computer graphics – Algorithms both for generating visual images synthetically, and for integrating or altering visual and spatial information sampled from the real world.
- Image processing – Determining information from an image through computation.
- Information visualization – Methods for representing and displaying abstract data to facilitate human interaction for exploration and understanding.
Concurrent, parallel, and distributed systems
- Parallel computing – The theory and practice of simultaneous computation; data safety in any multitasking or multithreaded environment.
- Concurrency (computer science) – Computing using multiple concurrent threads of execution, devising algorithms for solving problems on multiple processors to achieve maximal speed-up compared to sequential execution.
- Distributed computing – Computing using multiple computing devices over a network to accomplish a common objective or task and thereby reducing the latency involved in single processor contributions for any task.
Programming languages and compilers
- Formal methods – Mathematical approaches for describing and reasoning about software design.
- Software engineering – The principles and practice of designing, developing, and testing programs, as well as proper engineering practices.
- Algorithm design – Using ideas from algorithm theory to creatively design solutions to real tasks.
- Computer programming – The practice of using a programming language to implement algorithms.
- Human–computer interaction – The study and design of computer interfaces that people use.
- Reverse engineering – The application of the scientific method to the understanding of arbitrary existing software.
Theory of computation
Data and data structures