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Technology – Wikipedia

Knowledge of means of accomplishing objectives

A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated.[1] Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.

Technology (“science of craft”, from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, cunning of hand”; and -λογία, -logia[2]) is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e.g. machines) applying technology by

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Computer programming – Wikipedia

Process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs

Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms’ accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding).[1][2] The source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, which is directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task (which can be as complex as an operating system) on a computer, often for solving a given problem. Proficient programming thus often requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain,

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Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A drawing of a usual, modern desktop computer.
A drawing of a usual, modern desktop computer.

A computer is a machine that accepts data as input, processes that data using programs, and outputs the processed data as information. Many computers can store and retrieve information using hard drives. Computers can be connected together to form networks, allowing connected computers to communicate with each other.

CharacteristicsEdit

The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific instruction set in a well-defined manner and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions call a program. There are four main processing steps in a computer: inputting, storage, outputting and processing.

Modern computers can do billions of calculations in a second. Being able to calculate many times per second allows modern computers to multitask, which means they can do many different tasks at the same time. Computers do many different jobs where automation is useful. Some examples are

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Programmer – Wikipedia

Person who writes computer software

A computer programmer, sometimes called only programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computers, or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software.

A programmer’s most oft-used computer language (e.g., Assembly, COBOL, C, C++, C#, JavaScript, Lisp, Python) may be prefixed to the term programmer. Some who work with web programming languages also prefix their titles with web.

A range of occupations that involve programming also often require a range of other, similar skills, for example: (software) developer, web developer, mobile applications developer, embedded firmware developer, software engineer, computer scientist, game programmer, game developer and software analyst. The use of the term programmer as applied to these positions is sometimes considered an insulting simplification or

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Software – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Software

Buscador de Programas en Ubuntu 13.10

Se conoce como software[1]​ al soporte lógico de un sistema informático, que comprende el conjunto de los componentes lógicos necesarios que hacen posible la realización de tareas específicas, en contraposición a los componentes físicos que son llamados hardware. La interacción entre el software y el hardware hace operativo un ordenador (u otro dispositivo), es decir, el Software envía instrucciones que el Hardware ejecuta, haciendo posible su funcionamiento.

Los componentes lógicos incluyen, entre muchos otros, las aplicaciones informáticas, tales como el procesador de texto, que permite al usuario realizar todas las tareas concernientes a la edición de textos; el llamado software de sistema, tal como el sistema operativo, que básicamente permite al resto de los programas funcionar adecuadamente, facilitando también la interacción entre los componentes físicos y el resto de las aplicaciones, y proporcionando una interfaz con el usuario.

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Outline of computer science – Wikipedia

Overview of and topical guide to computer science

Computer science (also called computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. One well known subject classification system for computer science is the ACM Computing Classification System devised by the Association for Computing Machinery.

What is computer science?[edit]

Computer science can be described as all of the following:

Subfields[edit]

Mathematical foundations[edit]

Algorithms and data structures[edit]

  • Algorithms – Sequential and parallel computational procedures for solving a wide range of problems.
  • Data structures – The organization and manipulation of data.

Artificial intelligence[edit]

Outline of artificial intelligence

Communication and security[edit]

Computer architecture[edit]

  • Computer architecture – The design, organization, optimization and verification of a computer system, mostly about CPUs and Memory
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Personal computer – Wikipedia

Computer intended for use by an individual person

An artist’s depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown).

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.[1] Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputers and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.

Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users

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Dynamic programming – Wikipedia

Figure 1. Finding the shortest path in a graph using optimal substructure; a straight line indicates a single edge; a wavy line indicates a shortest path between the two vertices it connects (among other paths, not shown, sharing the same two vertices); the bold line is the overall shortest path from start to goal.

Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method. The method was developed by Richard Bellman in the 1950s and has found applications in numerous fields, from aerospace engineering to economics. In both contexts it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler sub-problems in a recursive manner. While some decision problems cannot be taken apart this way, decisions that span several points in time do often break apart recursively. Likewise, in computer science, if a problem can be solved optimally by breaking it into sub-problems and then

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Perangkat lunak – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Perangkat lunak atau peranti lunak (bahasa Inggris: software) adalah istilah khusus untuk data yang diformat, dan disimpan secara digital, termasuk program komputer, dokumentasinya, dan berbagai informasi yang bisa dibaca, dan ditulis oleh komputer. Dengan kata lain, bagian sistem komputer yang tidak berwujud. Istilah ini menonjolkan perbedaan dengan perangkat keras komputer.[1]

Pembuatan perangkat lunak itu sendiri memerlukan “bahasa pemrograman” yang ditulis oleh seorang pemrogram untuk selanjutnya dikompilasi dengan aplikasi kompiler sehingga menjadi kode yang bisa dikenali oleh mesin hardware. Perangkat lunak seperti Windows atau Linux bisa disebut sebagai nyawa dari komputer, di mana tanpa diinstal sistem operasi tersebut maka komputer tidak dapat dijalankan. Perangkat lunak sistem operasi biasanya tersimpan di Partisi C sehingga saat komputer mengalami masalah, Partisi C yang terkena imbas. Perangkat lunak lain juga tersimpan di Partisi C yang apabila komponen tidak lagi berjalan maksimal dapat diuninstal dan diinstal ulang. Data-data lain lebih baik disimpan di partisi

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R (programming language) – Wikipedia

R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.[6] The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software[7] and data analysis.[8] Polls, data mining surveys, and studies of scholarly literature databases show substantial increases in popularity;[9] as of February 2020, R ranks 13th in the TIOBE index, a measure of popularity of programming languages.[10]

A GNU package,[11] the official R software environment is written primarily in C, Fortran, and R itself[12] (thus, it is partially self-hosting) and is freely available under the GNU General Public License. Pre-compiled executables are provided for various operating systems. Although R has a command line interface, there are several third-party graphical user interfaces, such as RStudio, an integrated development environment, and Jupyter, a notebook interface.[13][14]

History

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